assured 2011
Performance Report

Ecology

Bayer places great importance on protecting the environment and using natural resources responsibly. But environmental protection is also in harmony with our economic interests – it creates the foundation for our business activities and can help cut costs.

 

 

 

 

Hochwertige Kunststoffe aus CO2
High-quality plastics made using CO2 In the “Dream Production” project – a collaboration between industry and the scientific community – CO2 has been incorporated into polyurethanes for the first time. Alexandra Keldenich from the CAT Catalytic Center of RWTH Aachen works on the rotary evaporator.
In addition to meeting legal and other requirements, our responsibility and our commercial license to operate lie in constantly improving our environmental protection, health and safety performance. The fact that we joined the Responsible Care® [ 135 ] initiative of the chemical industry at an early stage underlines this intention and our voluntary commitment. Our Bayer Sustainable Development Policy [ 136 ] sets out the framework for our environmental action. We use efficient HSEQ management systems to control the implementation of our environmental protection measures.
We leverage our expertise in technology, process optimization and innovative products to protect nature, the environment and the climate. For example, our improvements in energy efficiency mean we are using less and less energy in the manufacture of many of our products. This cuts costs, while the resultant reduction in CO2 emissions means less needs to be spent on emissions trading.

Targets 2015

Climate protection (target 2020)

  • Reduce specific greenhouse gas emissions in the Group by 35% (direct and indirect emissions in relation to manufactured sales volume in t) between 2005 and 2020

Process and plant safety (target 2015)

  • Implement the Bayer-wide initiative to increase process and plant safety; dedicated process and plant safety training for approx. 26,000 employees worldwide by the end of 2012

Emissions (target 2015)

  • Reduce other relevant emissions (ozone-depleting substances - 70%, volatile organic compounds - 50%)

Waste (target 2015)

  • Reduce specific hazardous waste from production to 2.5% in relation to manufactured sales volume

Use of materials and energy

Now more than ever, material and energy efficiency, together with innovation in processes and products, are a crucial factor in competition. Analyzing and optimizing the use of resources, minimizing consumption, reducing emissions and avoiding waste are factors of strategic importance for us. That is why Bayer has initiated the Resource Efficiency Check [ 134 ] as part of its Sustainability Program. This method was tested in 2011 in pilot projects in the MaterialScience and CropScience subgroups and has already identified savings potential in the major categories of raw materials, energy, water and waste. In November 2011 the Community Board for Sustainable Development thus decided to use this tool systematically in the subgroups in the future.
Given the diverse nature of our business operations, production-specific procurement activities are organized separately for each subgroup. Detailed information on the procurement and use of raw materials, consumables and supplies for the respective subgroup can be found in the Annual Report 2011. Germany and German industry are dependent on imports from around the world for many important raw materials. Export restrictions put in place for rare earths are an example of how the perspective on the availability of raw materials has changed considerably in past years. At the start of 2012 Bayer and a number of other major German companies joined forces to establish the raw materials alliance “Rohstoffallianz GmbH” on the initiative of the Federation of German Industry (BDI). Its strategic goal is to act jointly on the global market in order to safeguard access to important raw materials. What form this cooperation will take depends on each individual case and the interests of each of the participating companies.
We use renewable raw materials when it makes technical, economic and ecological sense to do so. They still play a relatively minor role in terms of our total utilization of raw materials, but they are steadily gaining in significance in selected areas. Bayer MaterialScience is increasingly working on the use of renewable raw materials and carbon dioxide as feedstocks for polymers to produce the required polyurethane raw materials with minimum energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. At Bayer HealthCare some hormones are synthesized from plant sources. This requires certain types of sterols/phytosterols, which we procure via suppliers. These substances are generated (as a by-product) during the refining of vegetable oils from soybean, canola or sunflowers. Palm oil or palm kernel oil is not used, due to its low concentration of sterols. We also purchase various steroids, which are manufactured from diosgenin. Today, this substance is usually obtained from yam grown in countries such as China. This is not an endangered species. In the steps we follow in the fermentation process, we also use raw materials such as water, glucose, yeast, soybean starch, coconut oil and corn steep water, which are not endangered either. Extracts of plant leaves (Centella asiatica) are used in some Consumer Care products. This plant is common in Asia and is also not an endangered species.
The consumption of materials and energy and the level of emissions are determined to a large extent by the manufactured sales volume. We utilize this reference figure to measure the efficiency of energy and resources. In 2011 Bayer increased the manufactured sales volume by 5.2 percent. Despite this increase, we were able to further improve many of our performance indicators.
The Group’s energy consumption fell by about 1 percent on the previous year to 85 petajoules. For 2011 we are publishing the figures of the Bayer Group’s energy consumption in a new format. We now differentiate between primary energy consumption at our sites, mainly in the form of fossil fuels, and secondary energy consumption that reflects the purchase of electricity, steam and refrigeration energy and the use of process heat. To ensure consistency, we are providing figures retrospectively for each individual energy item over the last five years. This ensures transparency, making it even easier to track changes within these areas.
Primary energy consumption yielded a change of minus 3.0 percent, while secondary energy consumption increased by almost 2.3 percent.
18 Energy consumption (terajoules)
20072008200920102011
Primary energy consumption
for generating electricity & steam (in petajoules)
53.351.948.151.650.1
Natural gas30,08029,84829,41331,84731,162
Coal18,72819,10316,97617,80116,776
Liquid fuels1,6081,077772532660
Waste870775-33678515
Other *1,4301,078996774983
Secondary energy consumption
as steam, electricity, refrigeration energy (net)
(petajoules)
32.030.929.234.134.8
Electricity (net)25,86826,18323,67525,22925,475
Steam (net from purchase/sale)-2,566-4,008-2,0927221,054
Steam from waste heat (process heat)9,4819,5808,2738,7229,000
Refrigeration energy (net from purchase/sale)-826-850-654-595-683
Manufactured sales volume
(million metric tons)
10.610.08.710.411.0

* Other, e.g. hydrogen

Air emissions

Bayer reports its greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) [ 137 ]. This involves presenting emissions from previous years in a portfolio-adjusted format in accordance with the financial control approach of the GHG Protocol. Direct greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, waste incineration plants and production facilities (Scope 1 of the GHG Protocol) are determined at all production locations and sites with a high environmental impact. In 2011 90.8 percent of greenhouse gas emissions (measured in metric tons of CO2 equivalents) were CO2 emissions, 8.7 percent were N2O emissions, just under 0.5 percent were partially fluorinated hydrocarbons and 0.04 percent was methane.
Although the manufactured sales volume rose by 5.2 percent in 2011, direct greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 11.9 percent. This was due largely to process improvements and energy-saving measures. At the Baytown site in the United States, we cut our local greenhouse gas emissions by more than 64 percent. This is equivalent to 438,300 metric tons of CO2 equivalents. Nitrous oxide emissions (N2O) accounted for the largest share of this. A new catalyst has been deployed in the site’s nitric acid manufacturing facility since October 2011, so further decreases can be expected.
Our own power plants are responsible for a sizable proportion of the direct greenhouse gas emissions. As we also supply energy to third parties, a reduction in energy use at Bayer’s production plants does not necessarily lead to a proportional drop in our direct greenhouse gas emissions.
Chempark operator and service company Currenta continues to rigorously push ahead with its “Energy Efficiency Rating A++” climate program. Around 200 individual projects implemented helped cut CO2 emissions by around 159,000 metric tons in 2011.
In the year under review, Group-wide indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 2 of the GHG Protocol) rose by 5.7 percent compared to the previous year, partly due to the fact that the positive economic climate increased the procurement of electricity and steam. Total direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2011 decreased by 4.2 percent on the previous year. As the manufactured sales volume rose by 5.2 percent in the same period, this results in a further drop in specific greenhouse gas emissions per metric ton of sales product.

19 Greenhouse gas emissions * in the Group (million metric tons of CO2 equivalents)

20072008200920102011Target 2020
Direct greenhouse gas emissions **5.595.094.574.804.23
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions ***3.713.573.533.703.92
Total greenhouse gas emissions9.308.668.108.508.15

Specific greenhouse gas emissions***** (metric tons of CO2 equivalents per metric ton of product)

1.151.141.231.090.950.79****
-35%

* Portfolio-adjusted in accordance with the GHG Protocol

** In 2011, 90.8% of greenhouse gas emissions were CO2 emissions, 8.7% were N2O emissions, just under 0.5% were partially fluorinated hydrocarbons and 0.04% was methane.

*** Typically, CO2 in incineration processes accounts for over 99% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, when determining indirect emissions, our calculations are limited to CO2.

**** Based on 2005 figures. The presentation of greenhouse gas emissions is portfolio-adjusted, with no portfolio adjustment of production volumes; emissions reported for Currenta attributable to the provision of energy to other companies have been deducted, and at Bayer MaterialScience the by-products sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloric acid generated during production are not included in the production volume as they will occur in much smaller amounts in the future, thanks to measures aimed at enhancing energy efficiency. Trade products are also not included.

***** Specific Group emissions are calculated from the total volume of direct and indirect emissions divided by the manufactured sales volume of the three subgroups. Quantities attributable to the supply of energy to external companies (not Bayer) are deducted from the direct and indirect emissions. For the Bayer MaterialScience subgroup, only manufactured sales volumes that also form the basis for calculating Bayer MaterialScience-specific emissions are taken into account.

20 Greenhouse gas emissions for subgroups and service companies    
(total direct and indirect emissions in million metric tons of
CO2 equivalents)

20072008200920102011Target
2020 *
Bayer MaterialScience5.555.064.835.244.63
Bayer HealthCare0.570.560.550.540.540.53
-10 %
Bayer CropScience1.181.201.091.091.001.03
-15 %
Others **0.020.020.020.020.01
Currenta ***1.981.821.621.621.97

Specific greenhouse gas emissions for Bayer MaterialScience (metric tons of CO2 equivalents per
metric ton of product) ****

1.010.991.090.960.820.70
-40 %

* Portfolio-adjusted, based on 2005 figures

** Total greenhouse gas emissions for Bayer Technology Services and Bayer Business Services

*** The emissions reported for Currenta are attributable to the provision of energy to other companies at the Chempark sites.

**** The by-products sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloric acid generated during production are not included in the production volume as they will occur in much smaller amounts in the future, thanks to measures aimed at enhancing energy efficiency. Trade products are also not included. Internal studies at Bayer MaterialScience have revealed that in previous years selected polycarbonate materials (so-called compounds) were not included in the calculation, because this would seemingly have led to double counting. On closer inspection this proved to be incorrect. For this reason these materials have been included retrospectively in the annual Bayer MaterialScience product volumes calculated.

Bayer is currently involved in emissions trading throughout the E.U. with 11 incineration plants and approximately 2.4 million metric tons of CO2. The second trading period (2008-2012) takes the environmentally friendly energy generation at our combined heat and power plants into account. However, the E.U. emissions trading directive for the third trading period (2013-2020) stipulates that industry has to purchase allowances for electricity generation. For additional chemical plants, the allocation of allowances will be based on stringent benchmarks. Although the burden on “exposed sectors” (facilities at risk on global markets due to the cost of emissions trading) is set to be reduced significantly through the European Commission’s planned regulations, we must expect further cost increases from 2013 onward.
In fall 2011 the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG) published a new standard – the Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting & Reporting Standard – to govern the binding reporting of all relevant indirect Scope 3 emissions. We used this as an opportunity, alongside emissions already being recorded, to analyze and record such Scope 3 emissions that help us identify reasonable potential for reducing emissions. Further details can be found in our CDP Report.

Other direct emissions

Emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODS emissions) fell by around 21.5 percent to 16.3 metric tons in 2011. In 2011 no ODS emissions were attributable to relevant individual incidents. The rise in ODS emissions in the previous year was due in large measure to temporary leaks in the cooling systems at both the Baytown, United States, and Dormagen, Germany, sites. An HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning) strategy was introduced in Baytown with the aim of preventing the risk of leaks in the future and of generating additional potential savings through the use of optimized cooling systems and more eco-friendly cooling agents. The Vapi site of Bayer CropScience in India accounts for by far the biggest share of the Group’s ODS emissions (92 percent).
21 Emissions of ozone-depleting substances * 
20072008200920102011Target 2015**
ODS in metric tons p.a.14.717.117.520.816.36.2
-70 %

* In CFC-11 equivalents

** Target to be achieved by 2015 based on 2010 figures

The volume of volatile organic compounds (VOC) rose by 6.1 percent compared with the previous year. This was mainly due to growth in production. The biggest VOC increases were reported at the two Bayer CropScience sites in India – Vapi (+6 percent) and Ankleshwar (+45 percent). At Vapi in 2011, work started on the construction of a central waste air treatment plant. Completion of the first building phase at the end of 2012 is expected to lead to a significant fall in VOC and ODS emissions. By 2015 this project is expected to cut ODS emissions by 70 percent and halve the VOC emissions of the Group as a whole.

Target 2015

By 2015 this project is expected to cut ODS emissions by 70 percent and halve the voc emissions of the Group as a whole.
22 VOC emissions
20072008200920102011Target 2015*
VOC in 1,000 metric tons p.a.2.873.162.592.542.69
VOC in kg per metric ton
of sales product
0.27080.31600.29790.24360.24570.1218
-50 %

* Target to be achieved by 2015 based on 2010 figures

Other important emissions also fell in the period under review. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions fell by 4.5 percent. This is largely due to the closure of a manufacturing facility for the production of a polyurethane precursor at the Bayer MaterialScience site in Niihama, Japan.
Sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions fell by 16.7 percent. The biggest reductions were recorded at the Chempark sites in Leverkusen and Krefeld-Uerdingen in Germany, where increasing quantities of imported coal containing far lower levels of sulfur are being used. The volume of particulate matter in 2011 amounted to around 176 metric tons worldwide (down 13 percent).
23 Other important air emissions (1,000 metric tons p.a.)
20072008200920102011
CO2.01.71.41.41.3
NOx4.03.93.53.73.7
SOx3.63.22.82.72.3
Particulates0.20.20.20.20.2

Use of water and emissions into water

Water is essential to sustaining life, but it is growing increasingly scarce in many parts of the world and is becoming ever more expensive to supply and clean. It is therefore all the more important from both an economic and ecological perspective that global manufacturing companies like Bayer take a responsible attitude to water usage. Bayer signed the CEO Water Mandate [ 138 ] of the UN Global Compact at the end of 2008 with the aim of working with key stakeholders to develop sustainable strategies for water use. Bayer publishes comprehensive information on its systematic commitment, the measures implemented and results achieved thus far in its response to the CDP Water Disclosure [ 139 ] 2011. In this survey initiated by the Carbon Disclosure Project, 354 institutional investors called on 315 of the world’s biggest companies to disclose details of their water management along with opportunities and risks identified in connection with the use of water.
In December 2011 Bayer adopted a Water Position [ 140 ] as part of its sustainability strategy. We plan to implement a range of specific, continuous improvements in our own operating procedures with a view to protecting water resources, using water more efficiently and setting water reduction targets for sites particularly affected by water shortage or water quality risks. We also aim to develop innovative products and technologies for the market to improve water efficiency and quality in areas such as agriculture. Another element of the program involves support for projects that ensure our employees and the communities near our sites have access to clean drinking water and basic sanitation.
All three subgroups at Bayer have implemented systems and standards that meet their specific challenges with regard to water usage. In its Water Protection Directive, Bayer HealthCare commits itself to using water responsibly. Bayer CropScience has also committed itself to conserving water and using it sustainably, while Bayer MaterialScience regulates the efficient use of water in its HSEQ Policy.

News

Bayer’s new Water Position

Direct seeding of rice increases crop yields while cutting water consumption.Zoom image
Direct seeding of rice increases crop yields while cutting water consumption.
Many regions of the world have only limited access to fresh water and often cannot even cover their basic water requirements for sanitary facilities – not to mention industry. Bayer is therefore committed to the protection of water resources beyond its own requirements. The Group-wide Water Position adopted in December 2011 reflects this willingness to conserve water and to use it responsibly at all sites worldwide. Measures include using the company’s own water resources more efficiently, developing and marketing innovative products and technologies, and supporting local non-profit water projects.

Water consumption

Overall, Bayer’s water consumption fell by 13.2 percent in 2011 compared to the previous year. This reduction is due in part to the repair of a leak in the cooling water system at the Bayer CropScience site in Institute, United States. This had increased the amount of cooling water considerably the year before. In addition, a large production facility at the Antwerp site in Belgium remained out of operation for several weeks in the year under review, which also reduced water consumption significantly. At Institute, the consumption of surface water fell by 29 percent. Group-wide, the volume of surface water used dropped by 20 percent. Water taken from boreholes and springs was also down slightly on the prior-year level (minus 0.8 percent in absolute terms). However, as the total volume of water used dropped even more sharply, the percentage share of water taken from boreholes and springs rose by 11 percent relative to the Group’s overall consumption.
Wassernutzung im Bayer-Konzern
* The differences between volumes of water consumed and water discharged can be explained, for example, by unquantified losses due to evaporation, leaks, quantities of water used as raw materials in products and volumes of condensate generated through the use of steam as a source of energy.
** Sum from production processes, sanitary wastewater and rinsing and cleaning processes in production
25 Net water intake by source
20072008200920102011

Water consumption
(million m2 per year)

447439407474411*
– Proportion from surface water (%)5758587165
– Proportion from boreholes/springs (%)3232322531
– Proportion from public drinking water supplies (%)21132
– Proportion from other sources, generally rainwater (%)9991**2

* The figure of 437 million m³ recorded for water consumption and published in our Annual Report 2011 was too high. The correct figure is 411 million m³. At one of our sites, a large amount of process water, which is continually recirculated in a closed cooling system, was mistakenly recorded as “consumed water.”

** Through optimized accounting of water use, water consumption from other sources as from 2010 was assigned to the actual sources in most cases.

Usage of water

In 2011 total cooling water consumption amounted to 324 million cubic meters, equivalent to a reduction of over 18 percent. Some 79 percent of the water used by Bayer is once-through cooling water. This water is only heated and does not come into contact with products. This water can be returned to the water cycle without further treatment in line with the relevant official permits. In our production activities, we aim to use water several times and to recycle it. Water is already recycled and reused at 38 sites, e.g. in closed cooling cycles, through the reuse of treated wastewater or the recirculation of steam condensates as process water. A total of 13 million cubic meters of water were reused in the year under review.
As with surface water, the drop in once-through cooling water consumption is also mainly due to measures implemented at the sites in Antwerp and Institute. Globally, once-through cooling water consumption fell by 74 million cubic meters to 311 million cubic meters.

Discharge of water

In 2011 the total wastewater volume rose by just under 4 percent. All wastewater, including that which is not treated, is subject to strict monitoring and assessment before it is discharged into disposal channels. Some 75 percent of Bayer’s wastewater worldwide is purified in a wastewater treatment plant (Bayer or third-party facilities). The volume of treated wastewater remained virtually on a par with the previous year. The rise in the volume of non-treated wastewater in 2011 occurred mainly at the Bayer MaterialScience sites in Dormagen and Uerdingen, Germany, and Caojing, China, where, for example, new production capacities for TDI (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; intermediate product for plastic) led to a substantial increase in the amount of cooling water used. Once-through cooling water in the energy/power plant sector at the Currenta site in Leverkusen rose, thus increasing the volume of wastewater not requiring treatment by 2 million cubic meters to 4.2 million cubic meters.
Abwassermengen

Emissions into water

The goal of our water management system is to keep harmful emissions released into water as low as possible. Our total phosphorus emissions fell by a further 7 percent in 2011 due to the fact that production of products containing phosphates was scaled down at a number of sites. Nitrogen emissions rose by 7.8 percent, mainly due to a rise in production at the Bayer CropScience sites in Dormagen, Germany, and Roussillon, France as a result of the economic situation. Emissions of total organic carbon (TOC) in the reporting period rose by 6.2 percent due to the opening of a new TDI production facility at the Bayer MaterialScience site in Caojing, China, and changes to the product portfolio and process engineering procedures at the Bayer CropScience site in Kansas City, United States.
Despite a rise in production (+5 percent) and wastewater volumes (+3.7 percent on the previous year), heavy metal emissions throughout the Group fell by almost 5 percent and stood at just under 11 metric tons. The two biggest dischargers are based in Leverkusen in Germany, and Roussillon (Bayer CropScience) in France. Heavy metal volumes at the Bayer MaterialScience site in Brunsbüttel in Germany dropped substantially. Here, an improved wastewater management system and technical improvements reduced metal emissions by 44 percent compared to the previous year. The increase of almost 7 percent in emissions of inorganic salts is primarily due to increasing production volumes at the Bayer MaterialScience site in Caojing, China, and at Bayer CropScience at the Chempark Dormagen site in Germany.
27 Emissions into water (absolute)
20072008200920102011
Phosphorus
(1,000 metric tons p.a.)
0.990.780.740.090.08
Nitrogen (1,000 metric tons p.a.)0.680.670.640.490.53
Nitrogen (kg per metric ton
of sales product)
0.06420.06690.07370.04740.0486
TOC* (1,000 metric tons p.a.
of organically bound carbon)
1.771.591.351.421.50
TOC (kg per metric ton
of sales product)
0.1670.1590.1550.1360.137
Heavy metals (metric tons p.a.)8.910.49.011.410.8
Inorganic salts
(1,000 metric tons p.a.)
825812726866926
COD** – chemical oxygen demand (1,000 metric tons p.a.)5.314.774.054.264.51

* Total organic carbon

** Calculated value based on TOC figures (TOC x 3 = COD)

Waste and recycling

Recycling and a reduction in waste can improve cost efficiency while also helping to protect the environment. In order to minimize material use and waste volumes, Bayer strives wherever technically feasible and justifiable in terms of cost to reuse materials or divert them to other processes. Direct influencing factors, such as increases in production owing to changes in the economic climate and unscheduled clean-up measures, can have a dramatic impact on the development of waste figures and recycling options.

Waste generation and disposal

The total volume of waste generated rose by 18.7 percent to 958,000 metric tons in 2011.
28 Waste generated *
20072008200920102011Target 2015
Total waste generated
(1,000 metric tons p.a.)
9281,077914807958
– Hazardous waste
generated **
(1,000 metric tons p.a.)
342365375354474
– of which hazardous waste from production
(1,000 metric tons p.a.)
275305302325354
Specific volume of
hazardous production waste
(percent)
2.593.053.473.123.232.5

* Only waste generated by Bayer

** Definition of hazardous waste in accordance with the local laws in each instance

This rise was due to increased production volumes at various sites, such as the Chempark sites in Dormagen, Leverkusen and Krefeld-Uerdingen in Germany and the Caojing site in China, but primarily as a result of a renovation project at the Bayer CropScience site in Thane in India (roughly 76,000 metric tons in 2011). The latter is a large-scale groundwater and soil remediation project. Since 1963 Bayer has operated several production processes in Thane mainly for the manufacture of active ingredients for crop protection agent production. This project is scheduled for completion in 2013 and will affect the Group’s statistics accordingly. The volume of hazardous waste in 2011 was up 33.8 percent on the previous year. Here, too, the main influencing factor is the clean-up project in India. The excavated earth and rubble from deconstruction activity are classed as “hazardous” under national law and are being disposed of at an external landfill site that does not belong to the Bayer Group.

Target 2015

The specific volume of hazardous production waste increased in 2011. As things stand today, we will not be able to achieve our declared target of limiting this figure to 2.5 percent of the total production volume by 2015.
This is due to changes in process steps, mainly in the CropScience subgroup. Here, for example, production waste is generated during the synthesis of active ingredients in the form of by-products that cannot be further processed or used. Due to the legal regulations in many countries, we have to declare this as “hazardous waste” and dispose of it accordingly. We will continue to report these figures in the interests of our stakeholders.
30 Hazardous waste* disposed of according to means of disposal
20072008200920102011
Total volume of hazardous waste disposed of (1,000 metric tons p.a.)342365375354474
– Volume landfilled
(1,000 metric tons p.a.)
101818956122
– Volume incinerated/recycled
(1,000 metric tons p.a.)
241284286298352

* Only waste generated by Bayer

In parallel to waste generated, the total volume of waste disposed of also rose; in this case by 19 percent to 966,000 metric tons. Here, too, the substantial volume of waste generated by the clean-up project in India is having an impact on the overall balance. As a result, the Group’s total volume of waste disposed of in landfill increased by almost 40 percent. Without this increase in waste, the Group’s total volume of waste disposed of in landfill would have fallen by around 25 percent on the previous year. The absolute volume of incinerated waste rose by 11 percent globally in 2011 and recycled waste by 10 percent.
29 Waste disposed of according to means of disposal
20072008200920102011
Total volume of waste disposed of* (1,000 metric tons p.a.) 9311,061918809966
– Proportion removed to landfill (%)4845403238
– Proportion incinerated (%)2624283633
– Proportion recycled (%)2328313128
Waste that cannot definitively be categorized according to one of the above disposal methods (%)33111

* Bayer serves as a certified waste disposal plant operator at various sites. At these locations, Bayer disposes not only of its own waste but also of waste from third parties (companies not belonging to the Bayer Group). There is therefore a somewhat larger amount of waste disposed of than Bayer has generated itself.

Recycling at Bayer

Recycling is not possible for a large proportion of our end products owing to legal requirements, particularly for pharmaceuticals and crop protection agents. We are constantly searching for new opportunities for extensive recycling within the framework of legal regulations. In the year under review, the volume of recycled waste amounted to 273,000 metric tons (equivalent to 28 percent of the total waste disposed of), up almost 10 percent on the prior year figure.
The Bayer HealthCare site in Myerstown, United States, inaugurated a new vitamin production line in 2011. A partner was found to recycle the 243 metric tons of recyclable waste vitamins produced in 2011, using them as a feed additive for cattle and poultry in compliance with all the relevant legal requirements.
The Global Sideline Business of Bayer MaterialScience is endeavoring to recycle, instead of scrap, a whole range of systems and tools that are fully functional but no longer required. In 2011 it sold some 75 tangible assets to third parties, including a large reaction injection molding machine. In addition, around 7,500 metric tons of scrap metal were returned to the system.
Bayer CropScience also actively supported the return of crop protection product packaging via national industrial associations and corresponding reclamation organizations in 2011. 2011 saw the collection and, to a large extent, reuse of around 10,000 metric tons of rinsed primary packaging. Bayer CropScience is also working on the establishment of efficient take-back systems in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. Currenta’s patented pretreatment process for electronic scrap allows up to 99 percent of precious metals such as gold, silver and copper to be recovered from old computer circuit boards and cell phones. Currenta also focuses on “building recycling” at the Chempark sites. This involves the inspection of buildings for contamination, the environmentally sound disposal of huge quantities of rubble from deconstruction activity and the reuse of any recyclable materials.

News

Emissions-neutral office building in India cuts CO2 by 67 metric tons

One year after the inauguration of Bayer MaterialScience‘s emissions-neutral office building in Greater Noida, 40 kilometers southeast of the Indian capital of New Delhi, the energy balance is positive. In 2011, 72,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity were generated with the help of the photovoltaic system installed on the roof, whereas the building used just under 64,000 kWh of energy over the same period. Polyisocyanurate thermal insulation shields the building envelope against the heat, reducing the amount of energy required for air conditioning. The products and systems used were sourced from the region. This building underlines the functionality of Bayer‘s EcoCommercial Building (ECB) Program, one of the lighthouse projects of the Bayer Sustainability Program.

Protection of biodiversity

The protection of biodiversity is gaining in importance worldwide. The United Nations’ Decade on Biodiversity from 2011 to 2020 serves to implement further measures with the goal of maintaining and promoting biodiversity in accordance with the objectives set out in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) [ 141 ] in 1992.
As a result of factors such as urbanization and industrialization, less and less land is available for agricultural production. Modern agriculture must be highly productive to be able to achieve its mission of producing high yields to satisfy demand for agricultural raw materials. The conservation and protection of biodiversity represents a major challenge for agricultural production.
Our Bayer CropScience subgroup promotes the protection of biodiversity and the conservation of natural ecosystems as part of a sustainable agricultural policy. Bayer CropScience’s strategy encompasses research and development activities, including the identification of solutions for improving plant health, assistance in tackling invasive species and the support and implementation of measures to promote integrated crop management. Our own Conserving Biodiversity Position [ 142 ] governs our obligation to maintain and increase the diversity of species. Information on Bayer CropScience’s biodiversity projects and on other specific examples of our commitment to the protection of species [ 143 ] is available on the internet.
As a member of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA) [ 144 ], Bayer HealthCare supports the association’s current position on the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. In the search for potential active ingredients, we concentrate on the chemical synthesis of substances using state-of-the-art technologies in medicinal, combinatorial and computational chemistry. Our work does not encompass research into drug products derived from natural substances. If natural substances are needed in research, they are meticulously reviewed in advance in accordance with the Rio Convention. For example, while the drug we market as Glucobay™ is obtained from the soil bacterium Actinoplanes by a biotechnological process, it is not, however, considered a scarce natural substance, as it is present universally in the soil.
Through a company directive and accompanying internal approval procedure we have specified that new production sites may not be set up in areas that are protected by statutory requirements of the countries concerned with respect to natural characteristics, biodiversity or similar factors. In every case, the stipulated minimum distances to protected areas are complied with. In order to limit the total area of land use at our production sites, we are committed to land recycling, e.g. by renaturizing unused sites at the Chempark locations.

Dialogue

Handling energy raw materials responsibly

Industrialized countries are dependent on raw materials such as oil. It therefore goes without saying that raw materials should be handled responsibly.Zoom image
Industrialized countries are dependent on raw materials such as oil. It therefore goes without saying that raw materials should be handled responsibly.
Highly developed industrial nations are reliant on the availability of a range of raw materials including oil, natural gas and metals. However, rising global demand, including from emerging markets, and predictions are giving rise to fears of a raw materials crisis. President of the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) Professor Hans-Joachim Kümpel addressed this issue in October 2011 in front of an audience of top-level managers from Bayer. Prof. Kümpel is convinced that, from a geological perspective, generalized fears of raw material shortages are unfounded. However, he also stressed that restrictions do need to be imposed, as availability from a geological perspective does not necessarily mean those same reserves are actually accessible technologically. It is necessary to consider raw material availability on a case-by-case basis. The expert called for a more responsible approach to dealing with raw materials. Even if raw materials are not about to suddenly run out, conserving these resources as much as possible should be embraced as a logical step, as should driving forward the development of alternative resources.

Management systems for the implementation of our HSEQ targets

Bayer’s objective is to achieve an appropriate and consistently high standard of HSEQ (health, safety, environmental protection and quality) throughout the Bayer Group worldwide and to steadily improve it. To meet this goal, the company has established HSEQ management systems in all subgroups and service companies that are based on recognized international standards and are regularly reviewed and updated.
The boards of management/executive boards of the respective subgroups and service companies and the corresponding line organizations bear operational responsibility for HSEQ. Through continuous updating and development of HSEQ directives and through internal audits, each organizational unit ensures that its HSEQ management systems meet the specific requirements.

International standards and certifications

In contrast to earlier reports, since 2010 we have amended the audit of the extent to which our business activities are covered by HSEQ management systems and adjusted the presentation of results to a convention that is more customary in the industry. We now no longer present the coverage only in relation to the number of externally certified sites but instead also use the scope of our activities as a reference figure, which is essentially reflected in the production volume and energy consumption.
More than 80 percent of our business activity worldwide (in relation to production volume and energy consumption) takes place at sites that are externally certified or validated according to recognized international standards such as ISO 14001, EMAS and OHSAS 18001 or local standards such as Industria Limpia in Mexico. As part of a Group-wide certification master plan, we are seeking to further increase the level of coverage by 2017. The extent to which each individual subgroup is covered by internationally recognized standards in terms of both environmental protection and occupational health and safety should be at least 80 percent based on energy consumption.
In 2011 around 90 percent of all our production sites were equipped with an HSE management system audited by Bayer.
31 Certifications
Certifications to internationally recognized regulations and internal Bayer auditsCertified to ISO 14001 /
Validated
to EMAS standards
HSE management systems based
on other external standards*
Certified to
OHSAS 18001
Bayer-audited HSE management systems
Percentage of our operations (with respect to
production volume and/or energy consumption)

at certified or validated Bayer sites
62389922010
Percentage of our operations
(with respect to energy consumption)
at certified or validated Bayer sites
665427992011
Percentage of our operations
(with respect to production volume)
at certified or validated Bayer sites
62709842011

* RCMS (Responsible Care Management System) in the United States or Industria Limpia (clean industry) in Mexico

All subgroups also have industry-specific international quality management systems such as to ISO 9001, ISO 17025, ISO 13485 or GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice). If energy consumption is taken as the benchmark for coverage with quality management systems, Group-wide coverage amounts to 94 percent. In relation to production volume, it comes in at around 83 percent.

Plant and process safety initiative

In 2010 Bayer launched a Group-wide process and plant safety initiative. The goal of the measures is to develop the culture of safety and safety standards at the plants and in the laboratories and to optimize the safety technology. The most important principles and related organizational structures were set forth in the Group Directive on Process and Plant Safety.
Organizational adjustments and numerous training programs were implemented in the year under review. Our target is to have trained around 26,000 employees worldwide specifically in process and plant safety by the end of 2012.
Originally, the target was to train 40,000 employees. The number of participants given in 2009 was a rough estimate. This original figure was based on all employees working in “production organizations.” Following successful pilot training programs at sites in Wuppertal-Elberfeld (Bayer HealthCare) and Hürth-Knapsack (Bayer CropScience) in Germany and Map Ta Phut (Bayer MaterialScience) in Thailand, the planning began for the worldwide implementation of similar programs. To directly address as many employees as possible, the training materials are available in around 20 languages. In 2010 and at the start of 2011 concrete planning took place across all organizational units, with professional supervision by the first group of trained process and plant safety specialists. As a result of this process, it was only in 2011 that employees who would benefit from this training were identified by the relevant organizational units. This made it possible to reduce the number of employees needing training from 40,000 to around 26,000. The training is taking place on four levels via a training cascade. First, two-week courses were already held to train experts in process and plant safety. These experts will then train the next level and so on through to the biggest group at operator level (level 4), for whom training will start in the second half of 2012. In 2011 around 3,700 employees completed the training. For this purpose, dedicated training programs have been developed that are specially geared to the activities of various employee groups.
A second Process and Plant Safety Symposium is scheduled to take place in 2012 to discuss the level of cooperation achieved thus far between the various subgroups and countries and to further develop this collaboration.

Environmental incidents and transport accidents

Unfortunately, even our extensive safety precautions and training procedures cannot entirely prevent environmental incidents or transport accidents from occurring. Bayer uses the term “environmental incidents” to cover incidents at plants operated by Bayer resulting in the release of substances into the environment. Factors that influence reporting obligations include, in particular, the quantity and nature of the substance, the amount of damage caused and any consequences for residents. In accordance with our internal voluntary commitment, we report any leakage of substances with a high hazard potential from a quantity of 100 kilograms. Under “transport incidents,” we record incidents involving our own chemical transport services and those commissioned and paid for by us, in accordance with stipulated criteria. These include leakage of the load, graded according to the volume and dangerous goods class, personal injury and blocked transport routes.
The number of reportable environmental incidents in accordance with these Group specifications fell again in 2011 – from seven the previous year to just three. The number of transport accidents fell by one reportable event to seven.
Umweltereignisse
33 Transport accidents according to means of transport  (number p.a.)
20072008200920102011
Road98866
Rail11211
Inland waterways00010
Sea01000
Air00000
Pipeline00000
Total10101087
On the internet we have also listed and commented on /bl145 but that do not meet our requirements for environmental incidents and transport accidents.
Table 34 shows the development of figures for transport accidents, broken down according to the means of transport. In total, around one million transport movements took place in 2011.
34 Environmental incidents and transport accidents in 2011
Personal injuries
Environmental incidents
Bayer CropScience, Institute, United States, September 28, 2011:
During routine maintenance work on a wastewater pump system, process wastewater was released into the Kanawha river.
no
Currenta, Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany, November 18, 2011:
Approximately 10 kg of ammonia was released as a result of incorrect instrument operation during the unloading of a rail tank wagon.
Five people were taken to the outpatient clinic by the rescue services but were released on the same day.
yes
Transport accident that was also an environmental incident
Bayer CropScience, Beijing, China, May 19, 2011:
A truck transporting Bayer CropScience products from our Hangzhou site collided with another vehicle on the highway.
A fire broke out and both drivers died.
yes
Transport accidents*
Bayer MaterialScience, South Charleston, United States, January 20, 2011:
A train including wagons carrying the Bayer MaterialScience polyol Hyberlite E833 derailed. There were no leaks, environmental pollution
or personal injuries.
no
Bayer CropScience, Amatitlan, Guatemala, February 1, 2011:
Road traffic accident involving a truck carrying Bayer CropScience products. The driver and security escort died. The accident caused chemicals to spill onto the road, which meant the road had to be blocked off for cleaning. No environmental pollution.
yes
Bayer MaterialScience, Belford Roxo, Brazil, March 16, 2011:
Traffic accident involving a truck carrying polyol F-3040 from Bayer MaterialScience. The driver died. No product leaked.
yes
Bayer CropScience, Kwinana, Australia, March 17, 2011:
Due to excessive speed and an unsatisfactorily secured load, a Bayer CropScience truck lost part of its cargo when entering an
expressway. Around 200 liters of the product (Jaguar) spilled onto the road, which meant this had to be blocked off for cleaning.
No environmental pollution.
no
Bayer CropScience, Dormagen, Germany, June 25, 2011:
Traffic accident involving a truck carrying hazardous waste caused by an error on the part of the driver. Minimal product leakage from
waste containers, therefore no environmental pollution, but around 300 liters of diesel leaked from the vehicle’s fuel tank.
no
Bayer CropScience, Dormagen, Germany, October 25, 2011:
A truck carrying Bayer CropScience products was involved in a collision at the end of a traffic jam. No environmental pollution.
no
* The regrettable fatalities mentioned in the table did not involve Bayer employees but employees of various transport carriers who were transporting Bayer products at the time of the accident in question.
http://www.sustainability2011.bayer.com/en/ecology.aspx/trackback/

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Last updated: June 6, 2012